The Design of Everyday Things

  1. The Psychopathology of Everyday Things
    • Intro
      • Two of the most important characteristics of good design: discoverability and understanding
      • Discoverability: Is it possible to figure out what actions are possible and how to perform them?
      • Understanding: What does it all mean? How is it supposed to be used?
      • Simple things should not require manuals
    • The Complexity of Modern Devices
      • When there are issues we should blame the machines and the designers
      • Many problems due to lack of understanding of design principles necessary for effective human-machine interaction
      • Need to understand both technology and people
      • Engineers design for how they want people to be, not how they are
    • Human-Centered Design (HCD)
      • putting human needs, capabilities, and behaviors first
      • getting specification is one of most difficult parts so HCD principle is to avoid specifying the problem as long as possible
      • Focus on iterating upon repeated approximations
    • Fundamental Principles of Interaction
      • great designers produce pleasurable experiences
      • discoverability results from affordances, signifiers, constraints, mappings, feedback, and conceptual model
    • Affordances
      • not a property, but a relationship between the object and the agent
      • the capabilities of the agent determine just how the object could possibly be used
      • Affordances determine what actions are possible
    • Signifiers
      • Signifiers communicate where the action should take place
      • signifiers communicate the purpose, structure and operation of the device
      • can be unintentional and inaccurate
      • when you see hand-lettered signs, usually looking at poor design
      • signifiers important for designers, communication is key to good design
    • Mapping
      • how controls correspond to layout of an object
      • relationship between control and result is easiest to learn wherever there is an understandable mapping between the controls, actions, and intended result
      • may vary by culture
      • device is easy to use when the set of possible actions is visible and controls display and exploit natural mappings
    • Feedback
      • communicating the results of an action
      • must be immediate and informative
      • poor feedback worse than no feedback and can have too much feedback
      • worst is uninterpretable feedback
      • feedback must be prioritized with unimportant information being presenting in an unobtrusive fashion
      • excessive feedback can be distracting and defeat purpose
    • Conceptual Models
      • highly simplified explanation of how something works
      • people hold these as mental models in their heads
      • often wrong and can make things harder to use
      • important in providing understanding and predicting how things will behave
      • the design can communicate inaccurate conceptual models
    • The System Image
      • conceptual models are formed by our experiences with using similar objects
      • combined information available is the system image
      • important to guide users when things go wrong
      • key to understandable and enjoyable products
    • The Paradox of Technology
      • while technology provides benefits, added complexities increase difficulty and frustration
      • added functions can cause problems
      • helpful if agreed upon standards for complex processes
    • The Design Challenge
      • requires balance of many disciplines and priorities
      • a successful product satisfied all the requirements
      • major clashes and deficiencies occur when disciplines operate independently of one another
  2. The Psychology of Everyday Actions
    • How People Do Things: The Gulfs of Execution and Evaluation
      • role of designer is to bridge gulf of execution and evalution
      • gulf is small when device provides easily interpretable information (feedback and a good conceptual model)
    • The Seven Stages of Action
      • two parts of acting: doing and interpreting
      • execution and evaluation can affect our emotional state
      • goals, plan, specify, perform, perceive, interpret, compare
      • some of these steps may not be conscious until a big disruption of flow
      • many actions are opportunistic vs planned, require less effort
      • seven stages helps provide a guideline for developing new products or services
      • radical improvements come from reconsidering goals and figuring out root cause
    • Human Thought: Mostly Subconscious
      • without understanding humans, designs are apt to be faulty or difficult to understand and use
      • distinction between activities that are conscious and those that are not (most activities)
      • memory for factual information is declarative memory
      • because we are only aware of the reflective level of conscious processing, we tend to believe that all human though is conscious
      • cognition and emotions are tightly coupled and affect each other
      • emotions are a information processing system and assigns value
      • subconscious thought is quick and general, but can be wrong
      • need a balance of relaxed and tense states, too much of either is dangerous
    • Human Cognition and Emotion
      • Visceral: lizard brain. fast, automatic. immediate perception.
      • Behavioral: home of learned skills. actions and analysis. only have to think about action, not low-level details. every action is associated with an expectation. feedback is vital here.
      • Reflective: conscious cognition. highest levels of emotions come from the reflective level, where causes are assigned and predictions of the future take place.
      • Design must take place at all levels
      • Reflection is perhaps most important
      • reflective memories are often more important than reality
      • badly designed devices can induce frustration and anger, while well-designed devices can induce pride and enjoyment
      • either cognition or emotion can be first and drive the other
    • The Seven Stages of Action and the Three Levels of Processing
      • one important emotional state is the one that accompanies complete immersion or “flow”
      • feelings based on results and expectations
    • People as Storytellers
      • people innately disposed to look for causes of events to form explanations and stories
      • errors can result from correlation causation
      • everyone forms stories to explain what they have observed
    • Blaming the Wrong Things
      • tendency to repeat an action when the first attempt fails can be disastrous
      • better to show conservative time estimates
      • people often incorrectly attribute the causal factor
    • Learned Helplessness
      • when people experience repeated failure at a task
      • sometimes only takes a few experiences
      • when people have trouble using technology and seems like other people aren’t having trouble can induce this
      • one small failure can cause a vicious cycle resulting in a self-fulfilling prophecy
    • Positive Psychology
      • can learn optimistic positive responses to life
      • to fail is to learn and we learn more from our failures than our successes
      • don’t blame people for your failed products
      • take difficulties as signifiers for where product can be improved
      • eliminate error messages and provide help and guidance instead
      • don’t impede progress, try to keep smooth and continuous and easy to correct
    • Falsely Blaming Yourself
      • users many times blame themselves and stay quiet even if design may be faulty
      • designers should take special pains to make errors as cost-free as possible
      • should try to find out when errors happened and rectify
      • hard to design things that work well when thing don’t go according to planned
    • How Technology can accommodate human behavior
      • feedback is much cheaper today due to falling costs
      • allowing flexible inputs helps usability
    • The Seven Stages of Action: Seven Fundamental Design Principles
      • information that helps answer questions of execution are feedforwards
      • information that helps understanding what has happened is feedback
      • feedforward accomplished through signifiers, constraints, and mappings
      • don’t criticize unless you can do better
      • good design requires condiseration of the entire system
  3. Knowledge in the Head and in the World
    • Precise Behavior from Imprecise Knowledge
      • Knowledge is both in the head and in the world: much of the knowledge a person needs to do a task can be derived from the information in the world
      • Great Precision is not required: perfect behavior can result if combined knowledge in head and world is sufficient to distinguish appropriate choices
      • Natural Constraints Exist in the World: Provides knowledge
      • Knowledge of Cultural Constraints and Conventions exists in the head: learned artificial restrictions on behavior that reduce the set of likely actions.
      • People can figure out how to react with incomplete information
      • good performance can result even in absence of previous knowledge
    • Knowledge is in the World
      • When knowledge is readily available, need to learn it diminishes
      • so much knowledge available, surprising how little we need to learn
      • two types of knowledge: of and how
      • of or declarative knowledge includes facts and rules
      • how or procedural knowledge enables people to do things. difficult to write down or teach
    • When Precision is unexpectedly required
      • people maintain only partial description of things to be remembered
      • introducing similar things can cause confusion
      • people learn to focus on distinguishing features
      • prexisting filters based on history
    • Constraints Simplify Memory
      • easier to memorize poetry, because more constraints on what can be right
      • constraints make it easier to retain things in memory
      • physical constraints can greatly reduce the number of ways things can be put together incorrectly
    • The Structure of Memory
      • Short-term: quick, severely limited. capacity depends on familiarity with topics. don’t expect much to get retained.
      • Long-term: takes time to get into and out of. sleep strengthens. reviewing also helps. subject to different interpretations, not 100% accurate.
      • Memories are usually in two categories: arbitrary things and meaningful things
      • arbitrary associated with rote learning, difficult.
      • good conceptual models lie in ability to provide meaning to things
      • once you create a meaningful relationship much easier to remember
    • Approximate Models: Memory in the Real World
      • many experts don’t consciously think about what they are doing
      • many times approximations are good enough in the practical world
    • Scientific Theory vs. Everyday Practice
      • in scientific world usually broad agreement and disagreement are very specifics
      • in practical world, don’t need absolute truth
    • Knowledge in the Head
      • for prospective memory, trying to remember yourself is not a good strategy
      • signal and the message are distinct
    • Tradeoff Between Knowledge in the World and in the Head
      • some tradeoff on depending on one more than the other
    • Memory in Multiple Heads, Multiple Devices
      • external knowledge is powerful, but often erroneous
      • partnership of technology and people are making us more capable, but we are increasingly becoming reliant on it
    • Natural Mapping
      • Best mapping: controls are mounted directly on the item
      • Second-best: controls are close to the object
      • Third-best: controls are arranged in the same spatial configuration
      • usability is not often thought about in the purchasing process
    • Culture and Design: Natural Mappings Can Vary with Culture
      • think of computers scrolling down on computer vs swiping up to read down
      • no correct answer, depends on what you consider to be moving
  4. Knowing What to Do: Constraints, Discoverability, and Feedback
    • Four Kinds of Constraints:
      • Physical: better if easier to see and interpret. sometimes legacy problem. think about root cause. solving one problem could make certain items unnecessary.
      • Cultural: We follow scripts the guide action.
      • Semantic: study of meaning. rely on the meaning of the situation to control set of possible actions. Can change though.
      • Logical: logical relationships between the spatial or functional layout of components.
    • Cultural Norms, Conventions and Standards
      • conventions are cultural constraints
      • violating conventions can mark you as an outsider
    • Applying Affordances, Signifiers and Constraints to Everyday Objects
      • many doors are not designed very well
      • e.g. putting plates for push instead of handles
      • sometimes switches are ambiguous and confusing e.g. many switches
      • a usable design starts with careful observation of how the tasks being supported are actually performed
    • Constraints That Force the Desired Behavior
      • Forcing Functions: form of physical constraint, prevents an action from happening if failure at one stage
      • Interlocks: forces operations to take place in proper sequence. e.g. operator needs to verify presence when using heavy-duty equipment
      • Lock-ins: keeps operation alive. e.g. save-screen on documents when trying to close. Can try to lock-in customers with a seamless experience between products.
      • Lockouts: prevents someone from entering a space. usually safety related.
    • Conventions, Constraints, and Affordances
      • conventions connect signifier with affordances
      • conventions are cultural constraints
      • sometimes hard to go against convention even if more compelling alternative
      • if new is only slightly better, better to be consistent
      • mixed systems are confusing
      • standardization is the fundamental principle of desperation
    • Using Sound as Signifiers
      • should be informative not annoying
      • can be easy to distract than aid
      • Skeuomorphic: incorporating old familiar ideas into new technologies even if no functional role. helps with transitions
  5. Human Error? No, Bad Design
    • Intro
      • When people think its human error, they go back to doing the same thing
      • For failures should find fundamental causes and redesign system so these can no longer lead to problems
    • Understanding Why There is Error
      • Most common reason is the nature of the tasks and the procedures that require people to behave in unnatural ways
      • We typically respond to error with punishment
      • Doesn’t cure the problem, because results in same errors over and over again
    • Root Cause Analysis
      • Investigating the accident until the single underlying cause is found
      • One problem is usually not one problem/cause
      • Second, generally analysis stops when a person is found. Should focus on what led to the error.
    • The Five Whys
      • Emphasizes need to keep going deeper even after an initial reason is found
      • tends to point to one cause, when usually there are multiple reasons
      • Need to think about the requirements of people
      • time stress is also a major cause
    • Deliberate Violations
      • Sometimes people knowingly take risks
      • Sometimes work is structured so people can’t get tasks done without breaking rules
      • Can result in rewarding non-compliance, may be due to organizational and societal errors
    • Major Error 1: Slips
      • Person intended to do one action and ends up doing something else
      • Action-based and memory based
    • Major Error 2: Mistakes
      • Wrong goal is established or wrong plan is formed
      • Proper actions, but error bc they were inappropriate
      • Rule-based: person appropriately diagnosed situation, but decided on wrong rule to follow
      • Knowledge-based: problem is misdiagnosed because of erroneous or incomplete knowledge
      • Memory-lapse: Forgetting at the stages of goals, plans or evaluation
    • Error and the Seven Stages of Action
      • Mistakes are errors in setting the goal or plan
      • Slips happen in the execution of the plan
      • Memory lapses can happen in any step
    • The Classification of Slips
      • Most everyday errors are slips
    • Capture Slips
      • instead of desired activity, a more frequent or recently performed one gets done instead
      • more common in experienced professionals, because usually not paying attention, actions more automatic
      • Designers should avoid having identical operating steps but then diverge
    • Description-Similarity Slips
      • Act upon an item similar to the target
      • Designers should ensure that controls and displays for different purposes are significantly different from one another.
    • Memory-Lapse Slips
      • Immediate cause of memory-lapse failures is interruptions
      • One way to combat is reduce number of steps
      • Another way is to provide vivid reminders of steps that need to be completed
      • Or forcing function. require something to be done before next step
    • Model-Error Slips
      • When a device has different states in which the same controls have different meanings
      • clocks often set wrong alarm e.g. AM/PM
      • e.g. remote control that controls everything
      • especially likely when the equipment does not make the mode visible and user has to remember
      • Designers should either avoid or make very obvious
    • Rule-based Mistakes
      • situation can be mistakenly interpreted
      • rule itself can be faulty
      • outcome can be incorrectly evaluated
      • Designers should provide as much guidance as possible to ensure that the current state of tings is displayed in a coherent and easily interpreted format–ideally graphical
      • easy to spot in hindsight, but at the time, likely overwhelmed with far too much irrelevant information
      • Goal should be to present information about the state of the system in a way that is easy to assimilate and interpret
    • Knowledge-Based Mistakes
      • Novel situations with no skills or rules to cover it
      • Best solution is to be found in a good understanding of the situation
      • In complex cases, help is needed and good cooperative problem-solving skills and tools are required
    • Memory-Lapse Mistakes
      • when goal or plan of action is forgotten
      • commonly caused by interruption
      • Avoid by ensuring that all relevant information is continuously available
      • Designer should assume user will be interrupted and will pick up again
    • Social and Institutional Pressures
      • Social pressures has strong influence on everyday behavior
      • once a problem is discovered by a team, biases everyone
      • Usually high pressure to keep things running
      • huge errors include plane crashes and nuclear reaction disasters
      • Don’t show up often in analyses because people and organizations are reluctant to admit
      • Good design not enough. Need to reward safety.
    • Checklists
      • Powerful tool proven to increase accuracy of behavior and reduce errors
      • Must be designed to cover essential items, but not be too burdensome
      • bad to impose a sequential structure unless the task itself requires it
    • Reporting Error
      • If errors can be caught, many problems they may lead to can be caught
      • not all easy to find and people may be reluctant to report
      • Reduce incidence of errors is to admit their existence, gather information on them, and be able to make appropriate changes
      • Hard to do in absence of data
      • Make it easier to report with goal to not punish but to determine how it occurred and change things so tat it will not happen again
      • Jidoka – in Toyota, if its discovered someone didn’t report an error, they are punished
      • Poka-yoke or error proofing – add simple fixtures or devices to constrain the operations so that they are correct.
    • Detecting Error
      • Slips are easy to detect, but faulty diagnoses are hard
    • Explaining Away Mistakes
      • Usually doesn’t matter ignoring an error
      • when something bigger goes wrong, people say didn’t notice, because no single incident appeared to be serious
    • Designing for Error
      • It should not be possible for one simple error to cause widespread damage
      • Understand the causes of error and design to minimize those causes
      • Do sensibility checks
      • Make it possible to reverse actions
      • Make it easy for people to discover the errors
      • Don’t treat action like an error, rather focus on helping user complete the action properly
      • Many don’t make it easy to pick up after an interruption and remember numerous small decisions that had been made
      • Warning must be carefully designed, because if too many, will be ignored, but should not be too annoying
    • Design Lesson from the study of errors
      • Add constraints to block errors e.g. colors, shapes, physical constraints
      • Undo: ability to reverse operation
      • Confirmation and Error Messages: people focus on actions, make clear implications
      • Sensibility Checks: intelligent systems can notify when largely out of bounds of normal range
    • Minimizing Slips
      • Slips occur when conscious mind is distracted
      • Best way to mitigate slips is to provide perceptible feedback about nature of action being performed and perceptible feedback on new state
      • design for interruptions and not undivided attention
    • Swiss Cheese Model of How Errors Lead to Accidents
      • Usually multiple small errors cause accidents
      • Swiss cheese metaphor suggests several ways to reduce accidents
      • 1) Add more slices of cheese
      • 2) reduce the number of holes or make them smaller
      • 3) alert the human operators when several holes have lined up
    • Resilience Engineering
      • goal of designing systems, procedures, management, and the training of people so they can respond to problems as they arise
    • The Paradox of Automation
      • When working fine great, but when fails, can potentially be very big
      • Can take over dull, dreary tasks, but fail with complex ones
      • when automation fails usually does so without warning
      • People can become too trusting and reliant on them
    • Design Principles for Dealing with Error
      • Need to understand what humans are good at and what machines are good at
      • Making people monitor something for long periods of time people have hard time doing, because not made for it
      • Put the knowledge required to operate the technology in the world. Don’t require knowledge to be in head.
      • Use the power of natural and artificial constraints: physical, logical, semantic, an cultural. Use forcing functions and natural mappings.
      • bridge execution and evaluation. Make things visible for both. provide feedback and make it possible to determine the system’s status.
  6. Design Thinking
    • Intro
      • Secret success is to understand what the real problem is
      • In the real world, problems do not come in neat packages, they have to be discovered
    • Solving the Correct Problem
      • Emphasis of book is developing products that fit the needs and capabilities of people
      • They take the original problem as a suggestion and think broadly about the underlying issue
      • Process is iterative
      • converge on proposal after considering a wide range of proposals
    • Double-Diamond Model of Design
      • They expand the scope of the problem, diverging to examine all the fundamental issues that underlie it, then converge upon a single problem statement
      • During solution phase, they expand the space of possible solutions and the converge upon a proposed solution
      • Discover, Define, Develop, Deliver
    • Human-Centered Design Process
      • Testing
        • gather a group of people who closely correspond to target population and have them use the prototypes
        • Observe; video can be helpful
        • Get more detailed information about the people’s thought processes and questioning them
        • Jakob Nielsen champions five tests
        • Study, refine, and do another iteration
        • Done in problem specification to ensure that the problem is well understood
        • Done in problem solution to ensure that the new design meets the needs and abilities of those who will use it
      • Four main activities: Observation, Idea Generation, Prototyping, Testing
      • Observation
        • Research about the customer and the people who will use the products
        • Applied Ethnography: observe would-be customers in natural environment
        • Traditional measure such as background what matters most are the activities to be performed
        • Design wants to know about people and how they will use
        • Tends to focus on qualitative factors so can’t do as much
        • Marketing wants to know what people will buy, which includes learning how they make their purchasing decisions
        • Traditionally uses large-scale quantitative studies with heavy reliance on focus groups, surveys, and questionnaires
        • Both are necessary, because 1) products must be bought and 2) it must support real needs so people can get pleasure form them
      • Idea Generation
        • Generate numerous ideas. dangerous to become fixated upon one or two ideas too early
        • Be creative without regard for constraints. Crazy ideas can contain creative insights.
        • Question Everything. A stupid question asks about things so fundamental that everyone asumes answer is obvious, but often times what was obvious just happens to be the way things were done.
      • Prototyping
        • Sometimes only way to know whether an idea is reasonable is to test it
        • Mock-ups can be pen an paper and don’t have to be sophisticated
        • Wizard of Oz strategy involves mimicking or simulating the interaction even if manually
        • Done in problem specification to ensure that the problem is well understood
        • During problem solution phaase of deisgn, real prototypes of proposed solution are invoked
    • Iteration
      • Fail frequently, fail fast
      • Deliberate tests and modifications make things better
      • Requirements made in the abstract are invariably wrong
      • Getting requirements right involves repeated study and testing
    • Activity-centered vs. Human-centered Design
      • Activity-centered design is letting the activity define the product and its structure
      • People’s activities around the world tend to be similar
      • People are less willing to learn an arbitrary system, but will learn things that are essential
      • People in all cultures learn to drive cars
      • Activity is higher level than task (shopping vs. find a shopping basket)
      • Levels of activity
        • Be-goals: why someone acts
        • Do-goal: determine plans and actions to be performed
        • Motor-goal: how actions are performed
      • Focusing on tasks is too limiting
    • Iterative Design vs Linear Stages
      • traditional is waterfall method
      • Both have merits
      • Iterative methods defer the formation of rigid specifications, Good for early design, Difficulty scaling to large projects
      • Decision gates give management better control of the process, but can be cumbersome
      • A combine method uses iteration between the gates
      • Trick is to delay precise specification of the product requirements until some iterative testing with prototypes has been done
      • The hardest part of the development of complex products is management
    • It doesn’t work that way
      • HCD describes the idea, but in reality, a business forces people to behave differently from the ideal
      • Market pressures plus an engineering-driven company yield increasing features, complexity, and confusion
      • Don Norman’s Law of Product Development: The day a product development process starts, it is behind schedule and above budget
      • Good product development teams work as harmonious groups
    • The Design Challenge
      • The fundamental principles of designing for people are the same across all domains
      • In dysfunctional companies, each team works in isolation, often arguing with the other teams
      • products have multiple, conflicting requirements
      • the buyer may not be the user and focus may be on factors other than usability (e.g. price)
      • For changes, best to make sure representatives of each group are present
    • Designing for Special People
      • All people are different, make different versions
    • The Stigma Problem
      • Many tools fail, because people don’t want to be associated with infirmities
      • Designing for people with special needs is called inclusive or universal design
      • The best solution to the problem of designing for everyone is flexibility
    • Complexity Is Good; Confusion is Bad
      • Most important principle for taming complexity is to provide a good conceptual model
    • Standardization and Technology
      • Standardization can result in improvements
      • Cultural constraint
      • Provide a major breakthrough in usability
      • Very laborious process, esp with more people
      • Companies marketing a product the meets a proposed standard will have a huge advantage
      • Take a long time to establish, but simplify our lives and make it possible for different brands of equipment to work together in harmony
    • Deliberately Making Things Difficult
      • not all things should optimize ease of use
      • hide critical components
      • Use unnatural mappings
      • make the actions physically difficult to do
      • Require precise timing and physical manipulation
      • Do not give any feedback
  7. Design in the World of Business
    • Competitive Forces
      • Manufacturers compete on price, features, and quality
      • Speed is important and competition may force a company to change its offerings
      • Mechanisms for collecting feedback seldom exist
    • Featuritis: A Deadly Temptation
      • Existing customers like the product, but express a wish for more features, more functions, more capability
      • A competing company adds new features to its products, producing competitive pressures to match that offering
      • Customers are satisfied, but market is saturated
      • Attempt to match the competition causes all products to be the same
      • Rare for a organization to let a good product stay untouched
      • Professor Moon argues a better strategy is to concentrate on areas they are stronger and strengthen them and ignore irrelevant weaknesses
      • Best products come from ignoring competing voices and focusing on the true needs of the people
    • New Technologies Force Change
      • Tech changes, but fundamental needs remain unchanged
      • The need for getting thoughts written down, for telling stories, doing critical reviews, or writing fiction and nonfiction will remain
      • Technological change has impacted every sphere of our lives: education, medicine, food, clothing, and transportation
    • How Long Does it Take to Introduce a New Product
      • people and culture change slowly
      • Can take decades for products to get accepted
      • even modern tech follow this cycle: fast to be invented, slow to be accepted, even slower to fade away
      • large companies also tend to be conservative and most radical ideas fail
      • Took almost three decades from the invention of multi-touch before companies were able to manufacture it with robustness to be deployed to the home consumer market
      • Ideas that are too early often fail
      • Requires change and investment from people to change to something new
      • Rule of thumb is 20 years from first demonstration to commercial product
    • The Typewriter Keyboard
      • QWERTY keys were designed to minimize chance of collision
      • Guarantees fast typing speed by placing letter that form frequent pairs far apart
      • main forces were mechanical and marketing
    • Incremental Innovation
      • Most design evolves through incremental innovation
      • testing and modifying cycle known as hill climbing
      • Cannot find higher hills, only the top of the current hill
    • Radical
      • Starts fresh often driven by new technologies
      • Internet showed that movies, music, newspaper, were really all just information providers
      • All still consumed, but the distribution is changing
      • Areas due for major transformation: Education, transformation, medicine, housing
    • The Design of Everyday Things: 1998 – 2038
      • People tend to be resilient to change
      • Social interaction, communication, and music are fundamental to human life they will persist no matter what like eating food
      • Believe “next great change” will take place within the sphere of these activities
      • Many areas: Education, business, transportation, self-expression, the arts, sex, health, food, drink, clothing, housing
      • principle remain the same, but examples changed from last print of this book
    • As Technologies Change will People Stay the Same?
      • Possible changes raise ethical issues
      • Perhaps a new species is arising, artificial devices had many of the capabilities of people sometimes superior
      • Technology, people, and culture: all will change
    • Things That Make Us Smart
      • Arguments that technology makes us smart and stupid
      • Each advance frees the mind from lower, petty things
      • Brain stays the same, tasks it focuses on changes
      • Best combination is human and machine
      • Humans tend to be strongest where computers are weak and vice versa
      • Unaided mind is highly overrated
      • Real power comes from devising external aids that enhance cognitive abilities
    • The Moral Obligations of Design
      • Needless features, needless models: good for business, bad for the environment
      • Services are repeatable, but problem with sellers of durable good since once everyone has it, they don’t need to buy anymore
      • Manufactures deliberately plan ways to make their products obsolete
      • Can also do this by making things go out of style
      • The design of everyday things is in great danger of becoming the design of superfluous, overloaded, unnecessary things.
    • Design Thinking and Thinking About Design
      • A design that people do not purchase is a failed design no matter how great the design team might be
      • The design must be though of as a total experience
      • Design not enough, have to be produced reliability, efficiently, and on schedule
      • If manufacturing cannot produce the product, the design is flawed
      • People’s needs must be met and they must want to buy, use and like the product
      • Enjoy the world, learn how to observe
    • The Rise of the Small
      • New technologies promise to give more power to the individual
      • Unlock creative power
      • Individuals can share, sell, distribute their ideas or products
      • Driven by efficient tools
      • Power is shifting
      • Rise of global interconnection, global communication, powerful design, and manufacturing methods that can be used by all, the world is rapidly changing
    • As the World Changes What Stays the Same?
      • Human beings have always been social beings
      • The design principles of discoverability, feedback, power of affordances and signifiers, mapping, and conceptual models will always hold
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